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King Edward I


Edward I was born in Westminster, Middlesex, England on June 17, 1239 to Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. In 1254 he was awarded the duchy of Gascony, Channel Islands, Ireland, the lands in Wales belonging to Henry, and the earldom of Chester, amongst other things. In October of 1254 Edward married Eleanor of Castile.

After a fairly rough start to his royal career he turned things around and became known for his Administrative Efficiency and Parliamentary Reform. His work with the emendation of English Common Law earned him the name of the "English Justonian". He was consistently striving to make the English system better while also striving to overtake and retain control of England's neighboring countries.

He started the war against Wales in 1277 due to his royal territory's consistent uprisings and by 1284 he had killed both Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and his brother David and enacted the Statute of Wales. He proceeded to finish a string of strategic castles while completely reorganising Wales into an English territory.

Trouble with Scotland started in 1286 when the succession of the next royal came under attack. After several years of tenuous relations,the Scottish Nobles rose up and insisted on legal jurisdiction.  In 1296 Edward conquered Scotland and removed their legendary Coronation Stone of Scone and placed it in Westminster earning him the nickname "the Hammer of the Scots". William Wallace led an uprising in 1297 and although it ultimately led to his death in 1305 at the hands of the English it sparked a rebellion that would not be contained. It ushered in the years of Robert the Bruce and his intense desire to free Scotland from England's control. 

On July 7, 1307 on the way to a battle with The Bruce, King Edward I passed away in Burgh by Sands. 

To learn more about King Edward I check out the links below. 

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